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Application Program Interfaces are methods for programs to exchange data without the involvement of humans. APIs often involve a schematic description of how the data looks like and where it needs to be sent. Today many APIs are based on HTTP.


Containers are discussed in lecture 4 and provide a way to package an application with its runtime requirement in a self-contained manner. Containers also provide limited security isolation.

Container Orchestrator#

A container orchestrator is responsible for managing containers across multiple virtual or physical servers. When a server fails or a container crashes the orchestrator is responsible for scheduling the container on a different server. Some orchestrators also manage integration with the cloud. Orchestrators are discussed in lecture 4


A content delivery network replicates content across the globe to bring the content closer to the end user. CDNs are discussed in lecture 3.


Databases as a Service are discussed in lecture 3 providing managed databases to a cloud customer without needing to manage a server, or the database system.


Docker is one of the earliest modern containerization systems. Docker was largely responsible for promoting the immutable infrastructure concept in containers.

Docker also contains the Docker Swarm orchestrator, a very simple system to manage containers across multiple machines.

Docker is discussed in lecture 4 and exercise 3.


Functions as a Service are a concept discussed in lecture 3 that allow a developer to run program code without needing to manage a server or a runtime environment.


Grafana is an open source graphing dashboard. It is discussed in exercise 5.


The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the protocol that powers the world wide web allowing for the easy up- and download of data. With HTTP each file (resource) has a unique URL on a server and can be linked.


Infrastructure as a Service is discussed in lecture 2 and provides virtual machines and related services to cloud customers.


The IOMMU is the memory management unit that virtualizes the Direct Memory Access (DMA) requests from I/O components and separates them from each other to prevent attacks over Thunderbolt/USB.


Istio is a service mesh used in conjunction with Kubernetes to facilitate microservices. Istio is discussed in lecture 5


Kubernetes is an advanced, and thus complex container orchestrator. It not only manages containers, it also contains a large number of cloud integrations for storage, networking, load balancers, autoscaling, and more. Kubernetes is discussed in lecture 4

Load balancer#

Load balancers provide either network or application level traffic distribution across multiple servers. They are discussed in lecture 2 and lecture 3


Microservices are a concept discussed in lecture 5 for creating multiple small applications working together across the network.


The Memory Management Unit is the component of the CPU that translates virtual memory addresses to real addresses. It is used to separate applications from each other.


Platform as a Service is a collection of services discussed in lecture 3 that give a developer the ability to deploy an application without needing to manage IaaS servers.


Prometheus is an open source, cloud native metrics collection system (time series database). It is discussed in lecture 5 and exercise 4.


A closet with standardized mounts for servers.


A network device that forwards layer 3 (IP) packets between separate networks.


A network device that forwards Ethernet frames (packets) between devices. It does not perform layer 3 (IP) routing.